The swimmer breathes out through mouth and nose during the recovery and gliding phase. This greatly increases the push from one stroke, but also makes recovery more difficult. Breaststroke - Technique - Leg Movement. The whip kick is used for competitive swimming as it is faster. Breaststroke is the stroke that creates the most resistance. The leg movement, colloquially known as the "frog kick" or "whip kick",[1] consists of two phases: bringing the feet into position for the thrust phase and the insweep phase. Leg Movement — Breaststroke Kick. The breaststroke is unique in that it is the only one of the four competitive swim strokes where the recovery (that is, the non-propulsive setup part of the stroke) takes place underwater. The kick is sometimes referred to as a "frog kick" because of the resemblance to the movement of a frog's hind legs; however, when done correctly it is more of a "whip kick" due to the whip-like motion that moves starting at the core down through the legs. Swim coaches, trainers and experts will give you all kinds of tips for performing at your best in both training and races. Swimmers need a basic breaststroke which … This reduces drag, but requires more power. 3. He swam all but 5 m underwater for the first three 50 m lengths, and also swam half underwater for the last length, winning the gold medal. For the breaststroke, the main leg movement is the whip kick. Amanda Beard), and few people have the flexibility to accomplish it. Non-simultaneous movement. Breaststroke uses the regular start for swimming. Step 3: The legs sweep outwards, around and slightly downwards in a flowing circular path, accelerating as they kick. The outsweep is followed by the insweep, where the hands point down and push the water backwards. The sudden sideways stress on the knees at the kick can lead to uncomfortable noise and feeling for the beginner and to wear for the senior. The legs move slower while bringing the legs into position for the thrust phase, and move very fast during the thrust phase. Basically, the legs are held together as they move up and down with the feet almost straight out. It is the most popular recreational style due to the swimmer's head being out of the water a large portion of the time, and that it can be swum comfortably at slow speeds. As a variant, it is possible to recover the arms over water. When the swimmer's elbows have reached the line of his eye and have begun to rise, his head starts to lift. Some swimming teachers believe that learning the front crawl first gives a higher risk of an incorrect scissor kick when learning breaststroke afterwards. Another variant of the breaststroke kick is the scissor kick, however, this kick violates the rules of the FINA as it is no longer symmetrical. Aim to make one leg lick less during the next lap compared to previous laps. Breaking the surface of the water with the feet is allowed unless followed by a downward butterfly kick. At any time prior to the first Breaststroke kick after the start and after each turn a single butterfly kick is permitted. Depictions of a variant of breaststroke are found in Babylonian bas-relief and Assyrian wall drawings. Our Speedo Fit kick technique video focuses on breaststroke and features advice from our elite swimming coach across areas such as foot positioning, kick acceleration and using a kickboard to isolate your legs. The pullout is also called the "pull down". ARMS. The arms are extended forward, and the legs are extended and held together. 3. The downward fly kick is now allowed in MCSL. Humans have strong muscles in the legs and would need swim fins (like a frog) to bring all their power into the water and stand with the sole of the feet on the water. For competitive swimming it is important that the wall at the end of the lane is always touched by both hands (known as a "Two-Hand Touch") at the same time due to FINA regulations. The wave-style pull is a circular motion with the hands accelerating to maximum speed and recovering in front of the chin, elbows staying at the surface and in front of the shoulders at all times. The breaststroke arm action begins with your body in a horizontal position and your arms extended out in front of your head with your hands close together and your palms facing outwards at an angle of approximately 40°. However, even though this technique was much faster than regular breaststroke, the dolphin fishtail kick violated the rules. Then the swimmer kicks and presses on their chest, undulating a little underwater, and squeezing the gluteus maximus to prevent the legs and feet from rising out of the water. Some of the topics in this course are: Leg and Arm Movements, Pulling and Breathing, Kicking Without a Kickboard, and many more. For example, if the relative speed between the water and the leg is twice as high on the thrust phase than on the recovery phase, the thrust is four times as high as the drag. towards the head) along the side of the body. 2. Therefore, one way to improve swimming times is to focus on the start and the turns. The breaststroke starts with the swimmer lying in the water face down, arms extended straight forward and legs extended straight to the back. In the thrust phase all three parts create their own wake, and the flat end of the feet acts like a hydrofoil aligned to give maximum forward thrust. All other variants fail to increase the frontal area, yet swimmers using them still generate some thrust by the velocity variation and do not drown. In the scissor kick, one leg moves as described above, but the other leg does not form an elliptical movement but merely an up-down movement similar to the flutter kick of front crawl. The wave-style breaststroke was pioneered by Hungarian Swimming Coach Joseph Nagy. dorsi-flexion of the feet. After touching the wall, the legs are pulled underneath the body. The body is often at a steep angle to the forward movement, which slows down the swimmer more than any other style. The swimmer has now returned to the streamlined position, and the cycle starts again. Consciously practicing, automate and the right leg movement. SW 7.6 At each turn and at the finish of the race, the touch shall be made with both hands simultaneously at, above, or below the water level. Twenty-five meter or 50 meter pool distances. The right time to perform the leg kick is at the end of the breathing cycle. The breaststroke is believed to be the oldest stroke and the first to be swum competitively. From the start and throughout the race the stroke cycle must be one arm stroke and one leg kick in that order. In the breaststroke, the swimmer leans on the chest, arms breaking the surface of the water slightly, legs always underwater and the head underwater for the second half of the stroke. The elbows stay in the horizontal plane through the shoulders. Over to you! However, a Japanese swimmer, Masaru Furukawa, circumvented the rule by not surfacing at all after the start, but swimming as much of the length underwater as possible before breaking the surface. The head stays in a neutral position, looking down and forward, and the swimmer inhales at this point. The right time to perform the leg kick is at the end of the breathing cycle. Both effects together, velocity and frontal area, yield a thrust-to-drag ratio of 8 for the legs. Olympian Ed Moses still swims a flatter style, despite the rapidly increasing popularity of the wave-style. One breaststroke problem Armbruster researched was that the swimmer was slowed down significantly while bringing the arms forward underwater. Breaststroke – a method of swimming on the chest, in which the arms are moved forward symmetrically, the legs make a simultaneous push in the horizontal plane. The wave-style was swum and made famous by Mike Barrowman when he set a world record using it, and is now commonly swum by Olympians, though Australian swimmers, most prominently Leisel Jones, generally seem to shun it. Your body should be flat in the water, arms straight out in front with hands together, and legs straight back with feet together. SW 7.3 The hands shall be pushed forward together from the breast on, under, or over the water. It is sometimes the hardest to teach to rising swimmers after butterfly due to the importance of timing and the coordination required to move the legs properly.[3]. The swimmer is at their highest at this point. Later on, swimmers were also allowed to break the water with parts of the body other than the head. The goal is to produce maximum thrust during the insweep phase, and minimum drag during the recovery phase. One kick is allowed, however, at the start and at the turn, providing that it is part of the body's natural movement. To visualize, some say that the hands anchor themselves in the water while the hips thrust forward. Full WEST breaststroke with motion separation; Open your hands, lift your head. In 1934 Armbruster refined a method to bring the arms forward over water in breaststroke. This style is well suited for underwater swimming. The movement starts with the outsweep. From the initial position with the legs stretched out backward, the feet are moved together towards the posterior, while the knees stay together. Swimming teachers put a great effort into steering the students away from the scissor kick. Breaststroke is the slowest and least efficient of all the competitive strokes; Although breaststroke can generate effective propulsion from both the arms stroke and the leg kick. Repeat this movement three times, bending your legs and flexing your feet correctly. The breaststroke is one of the most complicated strokes to learn. The breaststroke kick is an unnatural movement, ... 1-Arm, 1-Leg Breaststroke: A Drill to Develop Race Tempo Breaststroke. If he uses his high elbows as a hinge for the inward sweep of his hands and forearms, he will create the leverage he needs to use his abdominal muscles to bring his hips forward. Swimming requires your arms and legs to remain in motion in order to stay afloat and propel yourself backward or forward. In late 2005, FINA has also introduced a new rule which permits a single downward kick after the push off the wall. Keep your shoulders, hips and legs as horizontal as possible but slope your body slightly to allow the leg kick to stay beneath the water. Video Transcript: "Hi, I'm Olga and I'm Rotem. Keep your body horizontal, in line with the surface of the water; your head should cut through the water to allow you to breathe frontwards. Then the feet point outward in preparation for the thrust phase. During this time it’s very important for the legs to remain straight and motionless. He is said to have helped to popularize breaststroke, noting the ease with which it could be learned and swum.[1]. In 1538, Nicolas Wynman, a German professor of languages and poetry, wrote the first swimming book, Colymbetes. 2. Doing this under water will reduce the drag. While at first glance its technique may look simple, there are a few subtleties to take into account for … Breathe frontwards: raise your chest while you are pulling with your arms and then finish by pushing downwards with your chest until you are back in a perfectly horizontal position, so as to exploit the forward thrust coming from the leg kick that then follows. The hands shall be brought back on or under the surface of the water. Therefore, the leg and the swimmer reach higher speeds than might be achieved from a wide breaststroke kick (Richards, 2008). – Have you ever swum standing on the spot, making breaststroke movements with your legs with your arms along your sides? These games differentiated breaststroke, backstroke, and freestyle. Now that you know which muscle groups to … The toes are bent, the feet point 45° outwards, the sole points backwards, to mimic a hydrofoil. At the beginning of the pull phase keep your arms extended and pull almost exclusively outwards with your hands until they reach shoulder level, then bend your elbows and simultaneously rotate your arms so that your hands no longer sweep out in a circular movement but are turned inwards until they come together beneath your chest. Improve your Breaststroke with Speedos Expert Tips. The pullout at the start and after the turns contributes significantly to the swimming times. After the body is completely submerged, the body is pushed off the wall with both legs. In the scissor kick, one leg moves as described above, but the other leg does not form an elliptical movement but merely an up-down movement similar to the flutter kick of front crawl. During the underwater phase you can perform one complete arm stroke until your hands are along your sides, making one breaststroke leg kick and one butterfly leg kick. Some swimming teachers believe that learning the front crawl first gives a higher risk of an incorrect scissor kick when learning breaststroke afterwards. Ad. All movements of the arms shall be simultaneous and on the same horizontal plane without alternating movement. The hollowed back and accelerating hands would lift the head out of the water. Luckily, a better breast is possible with limited hip range of motion. Breaststroke Steps / Technique: Step 1 - Leg Movement: From the initial position move your feet and legs together, like a frog would. The head may be submerged after the last arm pull prior to the touch, provided it breaks the surface of the water at some point during the last complete or incomplete cycle preceding the touch. The resulting drag coefficient (or more precisely the frontal area) is thus doubled in the thrust phase. Be inspired by our collection! While this "butterfly" technique was difficult, it brought a great improvement in speed. In 1696, the French author and poet Melchisédech Thévenot wrote The Art of Swimming, describing a breaststroke very similar to the modern breaststroke. In 1774, following a series of drownings, English physician John Zehr of the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned began giving public speeches and demonstrations to teach proper swimming technique. When the leg movement is done, wait in arrow position for 3 seconds. Rear view of Breaststroke leg kick technique. This led to a variant of the stroke in which the arms are brought together as usual under the body after the pull but then are thrown forward over the water from under the chin until the arms are completely extended. To improve your breaststroke technique your body position should be with your head facing forward in line with your body. The head must break the surface of the water before the hands turn inward at the widest part of the second stroke. However, at the competitive level, swimming breaststroke at speed requires comparable endurance and strength to other strokes. While closing in a V shape to the rear a small "lifting" force can be felt. SW 7.4 During each complete cycle, some part of the swimmer's head must break the surface of the water. The British continued to swim only breaststroke until 1873. Early research on advanced kinematic analysis proved that the leg kick is the largest propulsive force of the stroke and that it occurs as the third propulsive force in the breaststroke movement cycle (Mason et al., 1989). Good hip and leg flexibility can provide many benefits to the breaststroke swimmer, these include, Improving the swimmer’s body position in the water, which can help to reduce drag. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English channel (between England and France), in 1875. In about the mid-1960s, the rules changed to prevent the arm stroke from going beyond the hip line, except during the first stroke after the start and after each turn. Your feet should face outwards during the kick phase to that you can sweep them outwards and then back together again at the end of the kick. After the stroke the body is kept in the initial position for some time to utilize the gliding phase. In 1938, almost every breaststroke swimmer was using this butterfly style, yet this stroke was considered a variant of the breaststroke until 1952, when it was accepted as a separate style with its own set of rules. He used breaststroke, swimming 21.26 miles (34.21 km) in 21 hours and 45 minutes. The hands shall not be brought back beyond the hip line, except during the first stroke after the start and each turn. APPLICATION OF BREASTSTROKE LEG MOTION Passive movement: After the kaymak, the legs are opened to the shoulder width and the knees are slightly twisted and the heels are pulled towards the hip. In this position the body has also the largest angle to the horizontal. The head must break the surface before the arms reach their widest point on the first stroke after the pull-out. The adoption of this technique led to many swimmers suffering from oxygen starvation and even to some swimmers passing out during the race, so a new rule was introduced by the FINA, limiting the distance that can be swum underwater after the start and after every turn, and requiring the head to break the surface every cycle.[1]. Video from underwater cameras showed Kitajima using a dolphin kick at the start and at some of the turns. The finish is similar to the touching of the wall during a turn. 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